Basic Usage of Pipenv

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This document covers some of Pipenv’s more basic features.

☤ Example Pipfile & Pipfile.lock

Here is a simple example of a Pipfile and the resulting Pipfile.lock.

Example Pipfile

[[source]]
url = "https://pypi.python.org/simple"
verify_ssl = true
name = "pypi"

[packages]
requests = "*"


[dev-packages]
pytest = "*"

Example Pipfile.lock

{
    "_meta": {
        "hash": {
            "sha256": "8d14434df45e0ef884d6c3f6e8048ba72335637a8631cc44792f52fd20b6f97a"
        },
        "host-environment-markers": {
            "implementation_name": "cpython",
            "implementation_version": "3.6.1",
            "os_name": "posix",
            "platform_machine": "x86_64",
            "platform_python_implementation": "CPython",
            "platform_release": "16.7.0",
            "platform_system": "Darwin",
            "platform_version": "Darwin Kernel Version 16.7.0: Thu Jun 15 17:36:27 PDT 2017; root:xnu-3789.70.16~2/RELEASE_X86_64",
            "python_full_version": "3.6.1",
            "python_version": "3.6",
            "sys_platform": "darwin"
        },
        "pipfile-spec": 5,
        "requires": {},
        "sources": [
            {
                "name": "pypi",
                "url": "https://pypi.python.org/simple",
                "verify_ssl": true
            }
        ]
    },
    "default": {
        "certifi": {
            "hashes": [
                "sha256:54a07c09c586b0e4c619f02a5e94e36619da8e2b053e20f594348c0611803704",
                "sha256:40523d2efb60523e113b44602298f0960e900388cf3bb6043f645cf57ea9e3f5"
            ],
            "version": "==2017.7.27.1"
        },
        "chardet": {
            "hashes": [
                "sha256:fc323ffcaeaed0e0a02bf4d117757b98aed530d9ed4531e3e15460124c106691",
                "sha256:84ab92ed1c4d4f16916e05906b6b75a6c0fb5db821cc65e70cbd64a3e2a5eaae"
            ],
            "version": "==3.0.4"
        },
        "idna": {
            "hashes": [
                "sha256:8c7309c718f94b3a625cb648ace320157ad16ff131ae0af362c9f21b80ef6ec4",
                "sha256:2c6a5de3089009e3da7c5dde64a141dbc8551d5b7f6cf4ed7c2568d0cc520a8f"
            ],
            "version": "==2.6"
        },
        "requests": {
            "hashes": [
                "sha256:6a1b267aa90cac58ac3a765d067950e7dbbf75b1da07e895d1f594193a40a38b",
                "sha256:9c443e7324ba5b85070c4a818ade28bfabedf16ea10206da1132edaa6dda237e"
            ],
            "version": "==2.18.4"
        },
        "urllib3": {
            "hashes": [
                "sha256:06330f386d6e4b195fbfc736b297f58c5a892e4440e54d294d7004e3a9bbea1b",
                "sha256:cc44da8e1145637334317feebd728bd869a35285b93cbb4cca2577da7e62db4f"
            ],
            "version": "==1.22"
        }
    },
    "develop": {
        "py": {
            "hashes": [
                "sha256:2ccb79b01769d99115aa600d7eed99f524bf752bba8f041dc1c184853514655a",
                "sha256:0f2d585d22050e90c7d293b6451c83db097df77871974d90efd5a30dc12fcde3"
            ],
            "version": "==1.4.34"
        },
        "pytest": {
            "hashes": [
                "sha256:b84f554f8ddc23add65c411bf112b2d88e2489fd45f753b1cae5936358bdf314",
                "sha256:f46e49e0340a532764991c498244a60e3a37d7424a532b3ff1a6a7653f1a403a"
            ],
            "version": "==3.2.2"
        }
    }
}

☤ General Recommendations & Version Control

  • Generally, keep both Pipfile and Pipfile.lock in version control.
  • Do not keep Pipfile.lock in version control if multiple versions of Python are being targeted.
  • Specify your target Python version in your Pipfile’s [requires] section. Ideally, you should only have one target Python version, as this is a deployment tool.
  • pipenv install is fully compatible with pip install syntax, for which the full documentation can be found here.

☤ Example Pipenv Workflow

Clone / create project repository:

$ cd myproject

Install from Pipfile, if there is one:

$ pipenv install

Or, add a package to your new project:

$ pipenv install <package>

This will create a Pipfile if one doesn’t exist. If one does exist, it will automatically be edited with the new package you provided.

Next, activate the Pipenv shell:

$ pipenv shell
$ python --version

This will spawn a new shell subprocess, which can be deactivated by using exit.

☤ Example Pipenv Upgrade Workflow

  • Find out what’s changed upstream: $ pipenv update --outdated.
  • Upgrade packages, two options:
    1. Want to upgrade everything? Just do $ pipenv update.
    2. Want to upgrade packages one-at-a-time? $ pipenv update <pkg> for each outdated package.

☤ Importing from requirements.txt

If you only have a requirements.txt file available when running pipenv install, pipenv will automatically import the contents of this file and create a Pipfile for you.

You can also specify $ pipenv install -r path/to/requirements.txt to import a requirements file.

If your requirements file has version numbers pinned, you’ll likely want to edit the new Pipfile to remove those, and let pipenv keep track of pinning. If you want to keep the pinned versions in your Pipfile.lock for now, run pipenv lock --keep-outdated. Make sure to upgrade soon!

☤ Specifying Versions of a Package

You can specify versions of a package using the Semantic Versioning scheme (i.e. major.minor.micro).

For example, to install requests you can use:

$ pipenv install requests~=1.2   # equivalent to requests~=1.2.0

Pipenv will install version 1.2 and any minor update, but not 2.0.

This will update your Pipfile to reflect this requirement, automatically.

In general, Pipenv uses the same specifier format as pip. However, note that according to PEP 440 , you can’t use versions containing a hyphen or a plus sign.

To make inclusive or exclusive version comparisons you can use:

$ pipenv install "requests>=1.4"   # will install a version equal or larger than 1.4.0
$ pipenv install "requests<=2.13"  # will install a version equal or lower than 2.13.0
$ pipenv install "requests>2.19"   # will install 2.19.1 but not 2.19.0

Note

The use of " " around the package and version specification is highly recommended to avoid issues with Input and output redirection in Unix-based operating systems.

The use of ~= is preferred over the == identifier as the former prevents pipenv from updating the packages:

$ pipenv install "requests~=2.2"  # locks the major version of the package (this is equivalent to using ==2.*)

To avoind installing a specific version you can use the != identifier.

For an in depth explanation of the valid identifiers and more complex use cases check the relevant section of PEP-440.

☤ Specifying Versions of Python

To create a new virtualenv, using a specific version of Python you have installed (and on your PATH), use the --python VERSION flag, like so:

Use Python 3:

$ pipenv --python 3

Use Python3.6:

$ pipenv --python 3.6

Use Python 2.7.14:

$ pipenv --python 2.7.14

When given a Python version, like this, Pipenv will automatically scan your system for a Python that matches that given version.

If a Pipfile hasn’t been created yet, one will be created for you, that looks like this:

[[source]]
url = "https://pypi.python.org/simple"
verify_ssl = true

[dev-packages]

[packages]

[requires]
python_version = "3.6"

Note

The inclusion of [requires] python_version = "3.6" specifies that your application requires this version of Python, and will be used automatically when running pipenv install against this Pipfile in the future (e.g. on other machines). If this is not true, feel free to simply remove this section.

If you don’t specify a Python version on the command–line, either the [requires] python_full_version or python_version will be selected automatically, falling back to whatever your system’s default python installation is, at time of execution.

☤ Editable Dependencies (e.g. -e . )

You can tell Pipenv to install a path as editable — often this is useful for the current working directory when working on packages:

$ pipenv install --dev -e .

$ cat Pipfile
...
[dev-packages]
"e1839a8" = {path = ".", editable = true}
...

Note

All sub-dependencies will get added to the Pipfile.lock as well. Sub-dependencies are not added to the Pipfile.lock if you leave the -e option out.

☤ Environment Management with Pipenv

The three primary commands you’ll use in managing your pipenv environment are $ pipenv install, $ pipenv uninstall, and $ pipenv lock.

$ pipenv install

$ pipenv install is used for installing packages into the pipenv virtual environment and updating your Pipfile.

Along with the basic install command, which takes the form:

$ pipenv install [package names]

The user can provide these additional parameters:

  • --two — Performs the installation in a virtualenv using the system python2 link.
  • --three — Performs the installation in a virtualenv using the system python3 link.
  • --python — Performs the installation in a virtualenv using the provided Python interpreter.

Warning

None of the above commands should be used together. They are also destructive and will delete your current virtualenv before replacing it with an appropriately versioned one.

Note

The virtualenv created by Pipenv may be different from what you were expecting. Dangerous characters (i.e. $`!*@" as well as space, line feed, carriage return, and tab) are converted to underscores. Additionally, the full path to the current folder is encoded into a “slug value” and appended to ensure the virtualenv name is unique.

  • --dev — Install both develop and default packages from Pipfile.
  • --system — Use the system pip command rather than the one from your virtualenv.
  • --ignore-pipfile — Ignore the Pipfile and install from the Pipfile.lock.
  • --skip-lock — Ignore the Pipfile.lock and install from the Pipfile. In addition, do not write out a Pipfile.lock reflecting changes to the Pipfile.

$ pipenv uninstall

$ pipenv uninstall supports all of the parameters in pipenv install, as well as two additional options, --all and --all-dev.

  • --all — This parameter will purge all files from the virtual environment, but leave the Pipfile untouched.
  • --all-dev — This parameter will remove all of the development packages from the virtual environment, and remove them from the Pipfile.

$ pipenv lock

$ pipenv lock is used to create a Pipfile.lock, which declares all dependencies (and sub-dependencies) of your project, their latest available versions, and the current hashes for the downloaded files. This ensures repeatable, and most importantly deterministic, builds.

☤ About Shell Configuration

Shells are typically misconfigured for subshell use, so $ pipenv shell --fancy may produce unexpected results. If this is the case, try $ pipenv shell, which uses “compatibility mode”, and will attempt to spawn a subshell despite misconfiguration.

A proper shell configuration only sets environment variables like PATH during a login session, not during every subshell spawn (as they are typically configured to do). In fish, this looks like this:

if status --is-login
    set -gx PATH /usr/local/bin $PATH
end

You should do this for your shell too, in your ~/.profile or ~/.bashrc or wherever appropriate.

Note

The shell launched in interactive mode. This means that if your shell reads its configuration from a specific file for interactive mode (e.g. bash by default looks for a ~/.bashrc configuration file for interactive mode), then you’ll need to modify (or create) this file.

If you experience issues with $ pipenv shell, just check the PIPENV_SHELL environment variable, which $ pipenv shell will use if available. For detail, see configuration-with-environment-variables.

☤ A Note about VCS Dependencies

You can install packages with pipenv from git and other version control systems using URLs formatted according to the following rule:

<vcs_type>+<scheme>://<location>/<user_or_organization>/<repository>@<branch_or_tag>#egg=<package_name>

The only optional section is the @<branch_or_tag> section. When using git over SSH, you may use the shorthand vcs and scheme alias git+git@<location>:<user_or_organization>/<repository>@<branch_or_tag>#<package_name>. Note that this is translated to git+ssh://git@<location> when parsed.

Note that it is strongly recommended that you install any version-controlled dependencies in editable mode, using pipenv install -e, in order to ensure that dependency resolution can be performed with an up to date copy of the repository each time it is performed, and that it includes all known dependencies.

Below is an example usage which installs the git repository located at https://github.com/requests/requests.git from tag v2.19.1 as package name requests:

$ pipenv install -e git+https://github.com/requests/requests.git@v2.19#egg=requests
Creating a Pipfile for this project...
Installing -e git+https://github.com/requests/requests.git@v2.19.1#egg=requests...
[...snipped...]
Adding -e git+https://github.com/requests/requests.git@v2.19.1#egg=requests to Pipfile's [packages]...
[...]

$ cat Pipfile
[packages]
requests = {git = "https://github.com/requests/requests.git", editable = true, ref = "2.19.1"}

Valid values for <vcs_type> include git, bzr, svn, and hg. Valid values for <scheme> include http, https, ssh, and file. In specific cases you also have access to other schemes: svn may be combined with svn as a scheme, and bzr can be combined with sftp and lp.

You can read more about pip’s implementation of VCS support here. For more information about other options available when specifying VCS dependencies, please check the Pipfile spec.

☤ Pipfile.lock Security Features

Pipfile.lock takes advantage of some great new security improvements in pip. By default, the Pipfile.lock will be generated with the sha256 hashes of each downloaded package. This will allow pip to guarantee you’re installing what you intend to when on a compromised network, or downloading dependencies from an untrusted PyPI endpoint.

We highly recommend approaching deployments with promoting projects from a development environment into production. You can use pipenv lock to compile your dependencies on your development environment and deploy the compiled Pipfile.lock to all of your production environments for reproducible builds.